The Bonapartes

Image may contain: 6 people, people standing

Photo of some history of the Bonapartes

Napoleon with his nieces and nephews on the terrace at Saint-Cloud, by Louis Ducis, 1810. Napoleon and four of his siblings have living descendants.

Posted in Bonaparte, Bonaparte family, Bonapartes, Napoleon, nephews, nieces, Saint-Cloud, terrace, World Cultures | Leave a comment

Princess George of Greece and Denmark

Image may contain: 1 person, smiling, closeup

Princess George of Greece and Denmark, Princess Marie Bonaparte-an aunt of Queen Elizabeth II Princess Marie Bonaparte 1882- 1962 age 80, known as Princess George of Greece and Denmark upon her marriage, She was a French author and psychoanalyst, closely linked with Sigmund Freud.

Her wealth contributed to the popularity of psychoanalysis and enabled Freud’s escape from Nazi Germany. She paid the Nazis a bribe, or ransom, of roughly £20,000 that allowed the eighty-two-year-old Sigmund Freud to move in 1938 from Austria to England. The occupying authorities had demanded the money, falsely stating he owed income tax and threatened to confiscate Freud’s library and collection. Freud repaid the Princess after arriving in England, having been able (also with her aid) to get gold out of Austria. Freud lived fifteen months in England before dying of cancer.

Marie Bonaparte was a great-grandniece of Emperor Napoleon I of France. She was the only child of Prince Roland Bonaparte 1858 -1924) and Marie-Félix Blanc(1859–1882). Her paternal grandfather was Prince Pierre Napoleon Bonaparte, son of Lucien Bonaparte, 1st Prince of Canino and Musignano, Napoleon’s rebellious younger brother. For this reason, despite her title, Marie was not a member of the dynastic branch of the Bonapartes who claimed the French imperial throne from exile. Her maternal grandfather was François Blanc, the principal real-estate developer of Monte Carlo. It was from this side of her family that Marie inherited her great fortune.

Posted in Author, Bonaparte, Bonapartes, daughter, Denmark, emperor, French, great-grand, Greece, Monte Carlo, Napoléon I, niece, Princess, psychoanalyst, World Cultures | Leave a comment

Napoleon Bonaparte

See the source image

Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)*
Napoleon had one legitimate child, Napoleon François Charles Joseph Bonaparte (1811-1832), also known as the King of Rome or Napoleon II, who died childless at the age of 21.
There are no other legitimate descendants in the male line from Napoleon I or from his brothers. There are, however, numerous descendants of Napoleon’s illegitimate but unacknowledged son, Count Alexandre Colonna-Walewski (1810-1868), born from Napoleon I’s union with Marie, Countess Walewski.

Joseph Bonaparte (1768-1844)*
Napoleon’s older brother Joseph had two legitimate daughters, Zénaïde* (1801-1854) and Charlotte (1802-1839). Charlotte died giving birth to her only child, who also died. Zénaïde married her cousin Charles Bonaparte* (1803-1857, son of Napoleon’s brother Lucien) and had eight children who lived to adulthood. She has living descendants.
Joseph also had two illegitimate daughters with his American mistress, Annette Savage. Pauline (1819-1823) died in an accident in Joseph’s garden at the age of 4. Caroline* (1822-1890) married an American, Zebulon Howell Benton, and had five children. She has living descendants, at least one of whom was born in America.

Lucien Bonaparte (1775-1840)*
Napoleon’s brother Lucien had 11 children who lived to adulthood. He has living descendants.

Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi (1777-1820)
Napoleon’s sister Elisa had two children who lived beyond infancy. Her son Frédéric (1814-1833) was killed in a riding accident at the age of 18. Her daughter Napoléone (1803-1869) married a wealthy Italian count, from whom she separated after a couple of years. Napoléone’s only child, Charles (1826-1853), committed suicide at the age of 26. He had no children, thus Elisa has no living descendants.

Louis Bonaparte (1778-1846)
Napoleon’s brother Louis, who was unhappily married to Napoleon’s stepdaughter Hortense de Beauharnais (Josephine’s daughter), had two sons who lived to adulthood. Napoléon-Louis (1804-1831), who married Joseph’s daughter Charlotte, died without any children. Louis’s second son Louis-Napoléon (1808-1873) became French Emperor Napoleon III. His only child, Louis-Napoléon (1856-1879) was killed in an ambush during the Anglo-Zulu War in South Africa at the age of 23. Thus Louis has no living descendants.

Pauline Bonaparte Borghese (1780-1825)
Napoleon’s fun-loving sister Pauline had one son, Dermide (1798-1804), who died of fever and convulsions at the age of 6. Thus Pauline has no living descendants.

Caroline Bonaparte Murat (1782-1839)*
American actor René Auberjonois, a descendant of Napoleon’s sister Caroline, in 2013
Napoleon’s sister Caroline had four children: Achille (1801-1847), Letizia* (1802-1859), Lucien* (1803-1878) and Louise* (1805-1889). Achille, who moved to the United States and married a relative of George Washington, had no children. Lucien, who lived in the United States for 23 years, also married an American, Caroline Georgina Fraser from Charleston. They had five children: four born in Bordentown, NJ, and one in France. Lucien has living descendants, including American actor René Auberjonois. Letizia and Louise also have living descendants.

Jérôme Bonaparte (1784-1860)*
Napoleon’s youngest sibling Jérôme had one son with his first wife, the American Elizabeth (Betsy) Patterson: Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte (1805-1870). Jerome Jr., who was not recognized as a Bonaparte by Napoleon, had two sons: Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte II* (1830-1893), and Charles Bonaparte (1851-1921), Charles, who served in President Theodore Roosevelt’s cabinet as Secretary of the Navy and, later, as Attorney General, died childlessly. Jerome Napoleon II had two children: Louise-Eugénie* (1873-1923), who married Danish Count Adam Carl von Moltke-Huitfeld and has living descendants; and Jerome Napoleon Charles (1878-1945), who fatally broke his neck by tripping over the leash while walking his wife’s dog in New York’s Central Park. Although Jerome Napoleon Charles had no children, reports that he was the last of the Patterson-Bonapartes are mistaken, unless one is referring only to the male line.

With his second wife, Princess Catharina of Württemberg, Jérôme Sr. had three children: Jérôme Napoléon Charles (1814-1847), who died childlessly; Mathilde (1820-1904), also childless; and Napoléon Joseph Charles* (1822-1891), who had three children and has living descendants.
Charles* (1822-1891), who had three children and has living descendants.

Bonaparte pretenders to the French throne

Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoléon, a descendant of Napoleon’s brother Jérôme, in 2006
Although Napoleon III was removed from power in 1870, and France – a republic – has not had a monarch since then, some members of the Bonaparte family are considered by some to have a claim to the non-existent French throne.
Under the law of succession established by Napoleon in 1804, only legitimate male descendants through the male line were eligible to assume the imperial crown. Lucien and his descendants were excluded from the succession plan because Napoleon disapproved of Lucien’s marriage. Over the years, the Bonaparte possessors of, or claimants to, the throne have been:

Napoleon I (Emperor of the French, abdicated in 1815, died in 1821)

Napoleon II (never actually ruled France, but briefly held the title of Emperor after his father’s 1815 abdication, died childless in 1832)

Joseph (died in 1844 with no descendants through the male line)

Louis (died in 1846)

Napoleon III (Emperor of the French, removed from power in 1870, died in 1873; no surviving descendants)

Jérôme’s male descendants (with Catharina of Württemberg) through the male line. The current claimant is Jérôme’s descendant Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoléon (b. 1986). This claim is disputed by Jean-Christophe’s father, Charles, Prince Napoléon (b. 1950), who was excluded from the succession in his father’s will for having married without paternal permission.

Posted in Bonaparte, Bonaparte family, Bonapartes, brother, brothers, children, count, daughters, descendants, emperor, France, French, illegitimate, king, legitimate, male line, monarch, monarchs, Napoléon I, Napoleon, Napoleon II, Napoleon III, numerous, Prince, Republic, Rome, royal, siblings, sister, sisters, son, sons, throne, World Cultures | Leave a comment

Alexandre Florian Joseph Colonna Walewksi

Image may contain: 1 person

Alexandre Florian Joseph Colonna Walewksi (B) 1810 Walewice, near Warsaw Poland (D) 1868 Strasbourg, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France age 58 (stroke)
Place of Burial: Paris, Île-de-France

He was the Son of Napoleon I, Emperor of France and Marie d’Ornano to Napoleon’s Polish mistress, Countess Marie Walewska. Marie became pregnant when she was living near Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, where Napoleon was temporarily residing. When Marie asked to go to Paris to have the baby, Napoleon told her to return to her husband and give birth in his house.

Her half brothers of Antoni Bazyli Rudolf Walewski h. Pierzchała; Rodolphe-Auguste comte d’Ornano;Eugen Alexander Megerle von Mühlfeld; Charles, comte Léon and Napoleon II, King of Rome.

She was delivered of a son who bore a striking resemblance to His Majesty. This was a great joy for the Emperor. Hastening to her as soon as it was possible for him to get away from the château, he took the child in his arms, and embracing it as he had just embraced the mother, he said to him: ‘I will make thee a count.’
In 1810, Marie and the baby moved to Paris. Napoleon installed them in a house and provided for them, though he ended his affair with Marie in view of his impending marriage to Marie Louise.

In September 1814, when Napoleon was in exile on Elba, Marie (by now divorced) visited him there with then four-year-old Alexandre.
Napoleon played hide-and-seek with the boy and rolled around with him in the grass. Napoleon reportedly said to Alexandre, “I hear you don’t mention my name in your prayers.” Alexandre admitted he didn’t mention Napoleon, but he did remember to say “Papa Empereur.” Napoleon said to Marie, “He’ll be a great social success, this boy: he’s got wit.”

Along with Méneval and Léon, Marie and Alexandre joined Napoleon for a final farewell at Malmaison in June 1815. In 1816, Marie married her lover, the Count d’Ornano. The following year, when Alexandre was seven, she died. The boy’s uncle ensured that he received a good education. Shortly before his death in 1821, Napoleon wrote, I wish Alexandre Walewski to be drawn to the service of France in the army. This proved prophetic, as when Alexandre was fourteen, he refused to join the Russian army (Poland was then under Russian rule).

He instead fled to London, and then to Paris. When Louis-Philippe ascended the French throne in 1830, he sent Alexandre to Poland. The leaders of the 1830-31 Polish uprising dispatched Alexandre to London as their envoy. According to Charles Greville, Alexandre was handsome and agreeable and soon became popular in London society.

On December 1, 1831, Alexandre married Lady Catherine Montagu, the daughter of the 6th Earl of Sandwich. They had two children: Louise-Marie (born Dec. 14, 1832) and Georges-Edouard (Mar. 7, 1834), both of whom died in infancy. Catherine died shortly after her son’s birth, in April 1834. Back in France, Alexandre became a naturalized French citizen and joined the French army.
He fought in Algeria as a captain in the French Foreign Legion, resigning his commission in 1837 to become a journalist, playwright, and diplomat. On November 3, 1840, Alexandre had a son, Alexandre-Antoine, with French actress Elisabeth Rachel Félix, who also had a son with Arthur Bertrand.

On June 4, 1846, Alexandre married Maria Anna di Ricci, the daughter of an Italian count. They had four children: Isabel (b. May 12, 1847, died in infancy), Charles (June 4, 1848), Elise (Dec. 15, 1849) and Eugénie (Mar. 30, 1856).
After his cousin Louis Napoleon came to power, Alexandre served as a French diplomat in Italy, and then as a French ambassador to London. He arranged for Napoleon III to visit London in 1855, and for Queen Victoria to make a return visit to France.
In 1855, Alexandre became France’s Minister of Foreign Affairs and, in 1860, the French Minister of State. He also served as a senator and, later, as president of the Corps Législatif.

In 1866, he was named a Duke of the Empire. Alexandre Walewski died of a stroke or a heart attack at Strasbourg on September 27, 1868, at the age of 58. He is buried at Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. Alexandre Colonna Walewksi has numerous living descendants.

Posted in ambassador, captain, citizen, Corps, Diplomat, duke, emperor, Empire, Foreign Affairs, France, French, French Army, French Foreign Legion, Journalist, Majesty, Minister, Napoléon I, Paris, playwright, President, senator, son, throne, World Cultures | Leave a comment

Charles, Count Léon

Image may contain: 1 person

Charles, Count Léon 1806–1881 age 75

He was another illegitimate son of Emperor Napoleon I of France and Louise Catherine Eléonore Denuelle de la Plaigne (1787–1868). He was the half brother of Alexandre Colonna-Walewski and Napoleon’s legitimate son, Napoleon II, Duke of Reichstadt.

Though Napoleon claimed he had only seven mistresses, he probably had at least 21. One of these was Eléonore Denuelle de La Plaigne. Napoleon met her in 1805 when she was a beautiful eighteen-year-old in the employ of Napoleon’s sister, Caroline Bonaparte Murat. Eléonore was also the mistress of Caroline’s husband Joachim. In April 1806 Eléonore obtained a divorce from her husband, who was in prison for forgery.

Napoleon set her up in a house on Rue de la Victoire in Paris. On December 13, 1806, she gave birth to Napoleon’s first child, a boy. Napoleon was delighted, as this proved he was not responsible for his wife Josephine’s infertility. When Eléonore asked for permission to name the boy Napoleon, he agreed to half the name. So the baby was christened Léon, and the birth certificate read the son of Demoiselle Eléonore Denuel, aged twenty years, of independent means; father absent. Eléonore’s liaison with Napoleon ended shortly after Léon’s birth.
In 1808 Napoleon arranged for her to marry an infantry lieutenant. He was killed during the Russian campaign in 1812. In 1814, she married Charles de Luxembourg, a Bavarian diplomat.

Meanwhile, young Léon was taken from his mother’s care and entrusted to a series of nurses, paid for by Napoleon. Léon was brought up under the last name of Mâcon, a recently deceased general of whom Napoleon thought highly. According to Napoleon’s valet Constant. Emperor tenderly loved his son. I often fetched him and he would caress and give him a hundred delicacies and was much amused with his vivacity and his repartees, which were very witty for his age.

Napoleon’s legitimate son, the King of Rome, was born, Léon received much less attention, though Napoleon continued to provide for the boy and remained fond of him. In March 1812, the Baron des Mauvières – the father-in-law of Napoleon’s private secretary, Baron de Méneval – was appointed Léon’s guardian. This provided a discreet way for Napoleon to manage the funds he was settling on the boy. In June 1815, after Napoleon’s defeat at the Battle of Waterloo and subsequent abdication, eight-year-old Léon (with Méneval) joined Napoleon at Malmaison before the latter’s departure for Rochefort and exile to St. Helena.

Léon attended a succession of Parisian boarding schools, with the expectation that he might have a legal career. In his instructions to the executors of his will, Napoleon wrote, “I should not be sorry were little Léon to enter the magistracy, if that is to his liking.” Napoleon also bequeathed 300,000 francs to Léon, for purchase of an estate. This legacy did not immediately happen, as the amount was to be taken from money Napoleon claimed was due to him from the “gratitude and sense of honor” of his stepson Eugène de Beauharnais and his widow Marie Louise. Neither of them came up with the funds, despite a lawsuit by Napoleon’s executor Charles de Montholon.

In 1821, Méneval assumed Léon’s guardianship. This soon became a headache for him, as it had been for his father-in-law, not least because Léon’s taste for luxury and pleasure far exceeded his pocket money of 12,000 francs a year. Méneval hired a tutor, whom Léon disliked. In January 1823, Léon escaped from his tutor while at the theatre and fled to Mannheim, Baden, where Eléonore and her husband were living.
By 1826, Léon was back in Paris and living on his own.
Contemporaries commented on how much Léon looked like Napoleon. According to a British observer, Léon was five feet six at least, an upright, handsome figure of a man … His origin was stamped upon his face, he was physically the living portrait of the great captain.

Léon told his uncle Joseph Bonaparte that he possessed trifling popularity which I owe to a glorious resemblance. With his imperial visage, his large income, and his taste for pleasure, Léon cut a conspicuous figure. With his imperial visage (Face French), his large income, and his taste for pleasure, Léon cut a conspicuous figure.
He was the prey of parasites and gamblers, an intrepid plunger himself, though sometimes a bad player In February 1832, after losing 16,000 francs in a card game and failing to pay up, Léon fought a duel in the Bois de Vincennes against Charles Hesse, a Prussian-born British officer. Though Hesse fired first, Léon’s shot struck Hesse in the chest and killed him. Léon was charged with deliberate manslaughter. A jury acquitted him.

This experience did not deter Léon from gambling. After a brief, undistinguished stint in the National Guard, by 1838 he had wound up (twice) in the debtors’ prison of Clichy. A police report of January 1840 described his living arrangements.
The Comte Léon lives at the Hôtel de Bruxelles, Rue du Mail. He had a for mistress a woman of vicious life, living and cohabiting with a married man named Lesieur, a clerk at the War Office, who has deserted his lawful wife for this concubine, who treats him in the most indecent fashion.

This self-styled Mme Lesieur follows the practice of magnetism, the proceeds of which business is devoured, as likewise Lesieur’s allowance, by the Comte Léon. … All the tenants of the house are indignant at the scandalous behavior of the Comte Léon and the woman.

Around this time Léon resolved to visit his uncle Joseph to ask him for money. Méneval warned Joseph and Joseph decided not to receive Léon based, among other things, on a rumor that Léon was a spy in the pay of King Louis Philippe’s government. Léon’s cousin, Louis Napoleon (son of Napoleon’s brother Louis) also refused to see him.
Léon provoked Louis Napoleon into fighting a duel on Wimbledon Common, which was called off only when the police arrived. Léon returned to France, where he survived by begging, borrowing and pursuing lawsuits, including two against his mother.

Something of Léon’s way of life can be gleaned from a February 1848 letter he wrote to General Gourgaud, who had briefly been with Napoleon on St. Helena.

When Louis Napoleon became Napoleon III of France, he refused to see Léon. He did, however, in 1854 decree that the dispositions in Napoleon’s will should be carried out. Léon was given a yearly income of 10,000 francs. Among other things, Léon opened an ink manufactory. He also milked his half-brother Alexandre Walewski for funds.
On June 2, 1862, Léon, at the age of 55, married 31-year-old Françoise Fanny Jonet, the daughter of his former gardener. Four of their children lived past infancy: Charles (born Oct. 24, 1855), Gaston (June 1, 1857), Fernand (Nov. 26, 1861) and Charlotte (Jan. 17, 1867).

The family settled at Pontoise, northwest of Paris. Léon died there on April 14, 1881, at the age of 74, of stomach or bowel cancer. He was buried in a pauper’s grave in the local cemetery, marked with a black wooden cross. His remains were later dug up to make room for others. Charles Léon Denuelle has living descendants.

Posted in emperor, France, French, king, legacy, Napoleon, Napoleon II, Paris, Rome, son, World Cultures | Leave a comment

Palais des Tuileries

Image may contain: sky and outdoor Image may contain: bridge, sky, cloud, outdoor and water

The Tuileries Palace Before –After- Attached on the Palace

Palais des Tuileries, was a royal and imperial palace in Paris which stood on the right bank of the River Seine. It was the usual Parisian residence of most French monarchs, from Henry IV to Napoleon III, until it was burned by the Paris Commune in 1871.
Built-in 1564, it was gradually extended until it closed off the western end of the Louvre courtyard and displayed an immense façade of 266 meters. Since the destruction of the Tuileries, the Louvre courtyard has remained open and the site is now the location of the eastern end of the Tuileries Garden, forming an elevated terrace between the Place du Carrousel and the gardens proper.

After the accidental death of Henry II of France in 1559, his widow Catherine de’ Medici (1519–1589) planned a new palace. She sold the medieval Hôtel des Tournelles, where her husband had died, and began building the palace of Tuileries in 1564, using architect Philibert de l’Orme. The name derives from the tile kilns or Tuileries which had previously occupied the site. The palace was formed by a range of long, narrow buildings. During the reign of Henry IV (1589–1610), the building was enlarged to the south, so it joined the long riverside gallery, the Grande Galerie, which ran all the way to the older Louvre Palace in the east.
Revolutionary France.

The Tuileries accommodated the Constituent Assembly, its successor, the National Convention and, in 1795, the Council of Five Hundred (Conseil des Cinq-Cents) of the Directoire until the body moved to the Palais-Bourbon in 1798. In 1799, the Jacobin Club du Manège had its headquarters there. The Committee of Public Safety met in the Pavillon de Flore. A courtier of a later era could summon up nightmarish visions of the palace’s Salle de Spectacle, or theater, where many Convention sessions were held during the Reign of Terror:

At night a single lamp illumined this huge deserted hall, peopled with terrible memories. These I would often muse over as I stopped at the spot once occupied by the chair of the president, where Boissy d’Anglas had saluted the bleeding head of Feraud, and where Theriot had listened impassively to the outburst of Robespierre at bay: “President of assassins, once more I ask your ear !” I saw in imagination the “Mountain,” the “Plain,” the “Marsh,” and the crowded tribunes; I fancied I could hear the shrieking clamor of the “tricoteuses” and the drums of the “sections” hastening to the attack or to the rescue of the Assembly; and I would call up one or other of the acts of the mighty drama of which this sinister hall has been the scene.

This straight line which runs through the Place de la Concorde and the Arc de Triomphe to La Défense was originally centered on the façade of the Tuileries, a similar line leading across the entrance court of the Louvre. As the two façades were placed at slightly differing angles, this has resulted in a slight ‘kink’ on the site of the palace a feature ultimately dictated by the curved course of the River Seine.

After the palace was demolished in 1883, the largely empty space between the northern and southern wings of the Louvre, now familiar to modern visitors, was revealed, and for the first time, the Louvre courtyard opened onto the unbroken Axe Historique.
Since 2003, the Comité national pour la reconstruction des Tuileries has been proposing to rebuild the Tuileries Palace. This effort is similar to the proposal of reconstruction of the Berliner Stadtschloss (Berlin City Palace).
There are several reasons for rebuilding the Palace of the Tuileries. Ever since the destruction of 1883, the famous perspective of the Champs-Élysées, which ended on the majestic façade of the Tuileries Palace, now ends at the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, formerly centered on the Tuileries but now occupying a large empty space.

The Louvre, with its pyramid on the one hand, and the Axe Historique of the Place de la Concorde-Champs-Élysées-Arc de Triomphe on the other, are not aligned on the same axis.
The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel fortuitously stands near the intersection of the two axes. The Palace of the Tuileries, which was located at the junction of these two diverging axes, helped to disguise this bending of the axes. Architects argue that the rebuilding of the Tuileries would allow the re-establishment of the harmony of these two different axes. The Tuileries Gardens would also recover their purpose, which was to be a palace garden.

Also, it is emphasized that the Musée du Louvre needs to expand its ground plan to properly display all its collections, and if the Tuileries Palace were rebuilt the Louvre could expand into the rebuilt palace. It’s also proposed to rebuild the state apartments of the Second Empire as they stood in 1871. All the plans of the palace and many photographs are stored at the archives nationales.
Furthermore, all the furniture and paintings from the palace survived the 1871 fire because they had been removed in 1870 at the start of the Franco-Prussian War and stored in secure locations.
Today, the furniture and paintings are still deposited in storehouses and are not on public display due to the lack of space in the Louvre. It is argued that recreating the state apartments of the Tuileries would allow the display of these treasures of the Second Empire style which are currently hidden.
Cost in 2006 a rebuilding of the Palace of the Tuileries was estimated to cost 300 million euros (£200 million pounds sterling or US$380 million). The plan was to finance the project by public subscription with the work being undertaken by a private foundation, with the French government spending no money on the project. The French president at that time, Jacques Chirac, called for a debate on the subject. Former president Charles de Gaulle had also supported reconstruction, saying that it would “make a jewel of the center of Paris.


Posted in arc, Architect, Convention, Courtyard, Empire, France, French, French Revolution, garden, gardens, Government, imperial, Louvre, monarchs, Palace, Paris, Parisian, pyramid, rebuild, reconstruction, riverside, royal, World Cultures | Leave a comment

Napoleon II

Image may contain: 1 person Image may contain: 1 person, child and closeup

Napoleon II
King of Rome, later Duke of Reichstadt,
(B) 1811, Tuileries Palace, Paris (D) 1832, Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria age 21

Napoléon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte, Prince Imperial, King of Rome, known in the Austrian court as Franz from 1814 onward, Duke of Reichstadt from 1818, was the son of Napoleon, Emperor of the French, and his second wife, Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria. Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma
Nickname: The Eaglet (was awarded posthumously and was popularized by the Edmond Rostand play, L’Aiglon.)
Regent: Joseph Fouché
Grandparents: Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Letizia Ramolino,Carlo Buonaparte, Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily
Parents: Napoleon Bonaparte, Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma
The Death of Napoleon’s Son, the Duke of Reichstadt. Napoleon’s only legitimate child, Napoleon François Charles Joseph Bonaparte, also known as the King of Rome, Napoleon II, or the Duke of Reichstadt, died of tuberculosis at Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna on July 22, 1832. He was only 21 years old. This career, sadly, was cut short when Franz contracted an illness that turned out to be tuberculosis.

In his last days he reportedly said:
“Must I end so young a life that is useless and without a name? My birth and my death – that is my whole story.” Marie Louise was with him. Francis was not.

Napoléon II was born in Paris in 1811. In 1814, Napoleon I was defeated by the Sixth Coalition and then forced to resign by his own officers. Napoleon I originally wanted Napoleon II to succeed him, but this was rejected by the coalition. Napoleon II and his mother went into exile in Austria, while Napoleon I was exiled to Elba.

In 1815, Napoleon I escaped and retook control of France, but was forced to resign again after his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo. Expensive gifts were lavished upon the little king (including this cradle, from the city of Paris) and he had a large retinue of servants. Napoleon doted on the boy. He enjoyed being with him, in contrast to Marie Louise, who loved her son but seemed afraid to handle him. The valet Saint-Denis recounted:

One day the Emperor took the little king in his arms after his breakfast, as was his custom, caressed him, played some little tricks on him, and said to the Empress, turning toward her, ‘Here! Kiss your son!’ I do not remember now whether the Empress kissed the prince, but she replied in a tone almost of repugnance and disgust, ‘I do not see how anybody can kiss a child.’

The father was very different; he never stopped kissing and caressing his beloved son. Baron de Méneval wrote:
Whether the Emperor was sitting in his favorite love seat…reading an important report, or whether he was going to his desk…to sign a dispatch, every word of which had to be carefully weighed, his son, either seated on his knees or pressed close to his breath, never left his arms…. Sometimes, dismissing the great thoughts that occupied his mind, he would lie down on the floor beside his cherished son, playing with him like another child.

Napo This golden world came crashing down in 1814. The last time little Napoleon saw his father was on January 24 of that year. He was not yet three years old. When Napoleon abdicated on April 4, he named his son the new Emperor of the French. The child, in theory, gained the title Napoleon II. However, the coalition partners who defeated Napoleon refused to allow junior to become his father’s successor. On April 6, Napoleon was compelled to abdicate unconditionally, renouncing his and his descendants’ rights to the French throne. Leon spent most of his life in Austria, where he was known as Franz. He became the Duke of Reichstadt at the age of 7 and joined the Austrian Army at the age of 12.

It has been claimed that he was the father of Sophie’s son, the future Maximilian I of Mexico, but this is widely rejected by historians. Franz became very close to Princess Sophie of Bavaria, the wife of his uncle Franz Karl. Their oldest son, Franz Joseph, became Emperor of Austria, and their second son, Maximilian, became Emperor of Mexico. The assassination of their grandson, Franz Ferdinand, led to World War I. Franz and Sophie spent hours in each other’s company. There were rumors’ that they had an affair, though this is unlikely.

On December 15, 1940, the remains of Napoleon II were transferred from Vienna to Les Invalides in Paris, as a gift to France from Adolf Hitler. They rested for a while beside those of Napoleon, then were moved to the lower church. Napoleon II’s heart and intestines remained in Vienna. They reside respectively in urns at the Habsburg Heart Crypt (Hofburg Palace) and the Ducal Crypt (St. Stephen’s Cathedral).
had Napoleon’s remains moved from Vienna to the dome of Les Invalides in Paris. His remains were buried next to his father’s for some time but were later moved to the lower church.

Posted in Battle, Bonaparte, Bonapartes, emperor, France, French, French throne, History, imperial, Imperial Family, Imperial House, Imperial line, Imperial throne, king, Napoleon II, Prince, royal, throne, World Cultures | Leave a comment

Napoleon III

Image may contain: 3 people

Napoleon III
(B) 1808, Paris, France
(D) 1873, Chislehurst, United Kingdom died of a Stomach ulcer age 65

Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte the nephew of Napoleon I, was the first President of France from 1848 to 1852, and the last French monarch from 1852 to 1870. First elected president of the French Second Republic in 1848, he seized power in 1851, when he could not constitutionally be re-elected and became the Emperor of the French.
Spouse: Eugénie de Montijo (B) 1826, Granada, Spain (D) 1920, Madrid, Spain (m) 1853–1873
Full name: María Eugenia Ignacia Augustina de Palafox y Kirkpatrick
16th Countess of Teba, 15th Marchioness of Ardales, known as Eugénie de Montijo, was the last Empress of the French as the wife of Emperor Napoleon III.
Place of burial: Saint Michaels Abbey, Farnborough, United Kingdom
Children: Napoléon, Prince Imperial (Napoleon IV)

Parents of Napoleon III was Louis Napoléon Bonaparte was a younger brother of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French. He was a monarch in his own right from 1806 to 1810, ruling over the Kingdom of Holland. ( B) 1778, Ajaccio, France (Corsica) (D) 1846, Livorno, Italy age 68. His birth name was Luigi Buonaparte
Louis was the fifth surviving child and fourth surviving son of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino, out of eight children who lived past infancy. He and his siblings were all born on Corsica, which had been conquered by France less than a decade before his birth.

Louis followed his older brothers into the French Army, where he benefited from Napoleon’s patronage. In 1802, he married his step-niece Hortense de Beauharnais, the daughter of Empress Joséphine Napoleon’s first wife. His son Louis-Napoléon established the Second French Empire, taking the throne as Napoleon III
In 1806, Napoleon established the Kingdom of Holland in place of the Batavian Republic, appointing Louis as the new king. Napoleon had intended for Holland to be little more than a puppet state, but Louis was determined to be as independent as possible, and in fact, became quite popular amongst his new people. Growing tired of his brother’s wilfulness, or disregard for other people’s feelings. Napoleon annexed Holland into the French Empire in 1810. Louis fled into exile in Austria, where he spent the rest of his life.

His mother Hortense de Beauharnais was the stepdaughter of Emperor Napoléon I, being the daughter of his first wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais. She later became the wife of the former’s brother,Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, (M) . 1802–1837) and the mother of Napoléon III, Emperor of the French.

She had also an illegitimate son, The 1st Duc de Morny, by her lover, the Comte de Flahaut. She traveled in Germany and Italy before purchasing the Château of Arenenberg in the Swiss canton of Thurgau in 1817. She lived there until her death on 5 October 1837, at the age of fifty-four. She is buried next to her mother Joséphine in the Saint-Pierre-Saint-Paul church in Rueil-Malmaison.
A portrait of Hortense hangs at Ash Lawn-Highland, the Virginia plantation home of James Monroe, fifth President of the United States. It was one of three portraits given by Hortense to Monroe’s daughter Eliza, who went to school with Hortense in France. (The other two portraits are of Hortense’s brother Eugène de Beauharnais and of Jeanne-Louise-Henriette Campan, the headmistress of the school attended by Hortense and Eliza.) Eliza’s daughter, Hortensia Monroe Hay, was named in honor of Hortense.

Napoleon III and Empress Eugenie son, Napoleon Eugene, prince Imperial.

Posted in Bonaparte, Bonapartes, emperor, France, French, French Army, French Empire, French Republic, History, imperial, monarch, Napoleon III, President, royal, throne, World Cultures | Leave a comment

Napoleon IV

Image may contain: 1 person

Napoleon IV
Napoléon, Prince Imperial (B) 1856, Paris, France
(D) 1879, Zulu Kingdom
He was the only child of Emperor Napoleon III and his wife, Eugénie de Montijo. After his father was dethroned in 1870, he relocated with his family to England.
Place of burial: Saint Michaels Abbey, Farnborough, United Kingdom
Successor: Victor, Prince Napoléon
Parents: Napoleon III, Eugénie de Montijo
Education: King’s College London, Royal Military Academy, Woolwich
On his father’s death in January 1873, he was proclaimed by the Bonapartist faction as Napoleon IV, Emperor of the French.
In England, he trained as a soldier. Keen to see action, he successfully put pressure on the British to allow him to participate in the Anglo-Zulu War. In 1879, serving with British forces, he was killed in a skirmish with a group of Zulus. His early death sent shock waves throughout Europe, as he was the last serious dynastic hope for the restoration of the House of Bonaparte to the throne of France.

Posted in Bonaparte, Bonapartes, emperor, France, French, House of Bonaparte, imperial, Napoleon IV, Paris, Prince, throne, World Cultures | Leave a comment

Napoleon V

Image may contain: 1 person, suit

Napoleon V
Victor, Prince Napoléon (B) 1862, Domaine National du Palais-Royal, Paris, France (D) 1926, Avenue Louise, Brussels, Belgiumahe age 64

Victor, Prince Napoléon, titular 4th Prince of Montfort, was the Bonapartist pretender to the French throne from 1879 until his death in 1926. He was known as Napoléon V by his supporters.
Spouse: Princess Clémentine of Belgium (m. 1910)
Princess Clémentine of Belgium (B) 1872, Laeken, Brussels, Belgium, was the wife of Napoléon Victor Bonaparte, Bonapartist pretender to the throne of France and Napoleon V
She died in 1955, Nice, France age 83.
Children: Louis, Prince Napoléon, Marie Clotilde Bonaparte
Her Parents She was the daughter of King Leopold II and the House: House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Marie Henriette of Austria.
Successor: Louis, Prince Napoléon (Napoleon VI)
Children: Louis, Prince Napoléon, Marie Clotilde Bonaparte

He was born in the Palais Royal of Paris during the Second French Empire the son of Prince Napoleon and his wife, Princess Marie Clothilde of Savoy, daughter of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. Two younger siblings would soon follow Prince Louis (1864–1932) and Princess Maria Letizia Bonaparte (1866–1926), later the Duchess of Aosta.

At the time of his birth, he was third in the line of succession to the throne behind Napoléon, Prince Imperial and his father. The Empire came to an end in 1870 with the abdication of Emperor Napoleon III.
He was appointed head of the house of Bonaparte at the age of 18 in the will of Napoléon Eugène, Prince Imperial, who died in 1879, and so became Napoleon V to his supporters, though his younger brother, Prince Louis, a colonel in the Russian Imperial Guard, was referred to him by many Bonapartists. The decision by Prince Imperial to bypass Prince Victor’s father led to a complete breakdown in relations between father and son. In May 1886 the French Republic expelled the princes of the former ruling dynasties and so Prince Victor left France for exile in Belgium.

At the time of the death of President Félix Faure in 1899, during the Dreyfus affair, a number of political factions attempted to take advantage of the disorder and Prince Victor announced to a delegation from the Imperialist committee that he would take action to restore the French Empire when he felt that the time was favorable. In order to achieve this, he announced he would place himself at the head of the movement with his brother, Prince Louis, fighting beside him who he said would be “bringing to the Bonapartist forces his prestige and his military talents as well as his rank in the Russian army”.

The Duke of Orléans, the rival claimant to the throne, also had forces available and they were ready to cross the French frontier at the same time as the Bonapartist forces. In the end, the anticipated outbreak in France did not materialize and the French Third Republic survived one of its gravest crises
Prince Victor died on 3 May 1926 in Brussels with the French author Charles Maurras commenting on Prince Victor’s time as pretender saying that he had not offered any new ideas since 1884 and no radical alternatives to republican governments. He was succeeded as the Bonaparte heir by his only son, Prince Louis.

On 10 November/14 November 1910, at Moncalieri, Prince Victor was married to Princess Clémentine of Belgium (1872–1955), daughter of Leopold II of Belgium and Marie Henriette of Austria. They had two children:
Princess Marie Clotilde Eugénie Alberte Laëtitia Généviève Bonaparte (1912–1996); married Comte Serge de Witt and had an issue.

Posted in Belgium, Bonaparte, Bonapartes, Empire, France, French, French Empire, French Republic, frontier, imperial, Imperial Family, Imperial House, Imperial line, Imperial throne, Imperialist, Military, Napoleon V, Paris, Political, prestige, royal, throne, World Cultures | Leave a comment